Wetenschappelijke Evidentie

▪ Approved by FDA in 1979 for T/t of fractures and non-union fractures
▪ “PMFT at least as effective as further surgery in cases of non-union with an overall success rate of 81% against 82% for surgery, although infected non-unions showed a success rate of 81% for PMFT against 69% for surgery” Gossling et al 1992.
▪ In a large group of long-term non-unions and failed arthrodeses (average non-union 4.7 yrs) who had extensive surgical failure(3.4 previous surgical failures) and relatively high infection rate (35%), bony healing took place in 75% of the patients treated with PMFT Bassett et al 1982
▪ In a double-blind prospective study of lumbar inter-body fusions, PMFT group had 92% healing rate whereas non-PMFT group had only 65% healed. Mooney V. Spine
▪ Similar study in 2000 showed 97.6% fusion rate in PMFT group but only 52.6% in control group. Marks RA. 2000
▪ Systematic literature review naar de “Therapeutic effects of whole-body devices applying pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF)”. Hug en collega’s 2012

▪ 300% increase in ALP expression in rat femoral fractures. Dickson et al The Queens Uni., Belfast
▪ Effect appears to be photo-chemical – NOT thermic
▪ Activates mitochondrial respiratory chain components
▪ Increases electron transfer in cytochrome oxidase (Cytochrome oxidase is key photo-acceptor of light in NIR spectral range)
▪ Increases levels of ATP synthesis in isolated mitochondria
▪ Increases osteoblast activity and reduces osteoclast activity Yaakobi + Oron Tel Aviv Uni.
▪ Weight percentages of Ca and P increased – P= 0.037 Ca and P= 0.034 P Khadra M et al 2004

• Gottschling, S., Meyer, S., Gribova, I., Distler, L., Berrang, J., Gortner, L., & Shamdeen, M. G. (2008, 15 juli). Laser acupuncture in children with headache: a double-blind, randomized, bicenter, placebo-controlled trial. Pain, 137(2), 405-412.

▪ Chow, R. T., Johnson, M. I., Lopes-Martins, R. A. B., & Bjordal, J. M. (2009, 05 december). Efficacy of low-level laser therapy in the management of neck pain: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised placebo or active-treatment controlled trials. The Lancet, 374(9705), 1897-1908.
▪ Ozdemir, F., Birtane, M., & Kokino, S. (2001). The clinical efficacy of low-power laser therapy on pain and function in cervical osteoarthritis.. Clinical Rheumatology, 20(3), 181-184.
▪ Soriano, F. A., Ríos, R., Pedrola, M., Giagnorio, J., & Battagliotti, C. R. (1996, januari). Acute cervical pain is relieved with gallium-arsenide (GaAs) laser irradiation. A double-blind preliminary study.. Laser Therapy, 8(2), 149-154.

▪ Ip, D., & Fu, N. Y. (2015, mei). Two-year follow-up of low-level laser therapy for elderly with painful adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder.. Journal of Pain Research, 8, 247-252.
▪ Stergioulas, A. (2008, april). Low-power laser treatment in patients with frozen shoulder: preliminary results.. Photomedicine and Laser Surgery, 26(2), 99-105.
▪ England, S., Farrell, A. J., Coppock, J. S., Struthers, G., & Bacon, P. A. (1998, februari). Low Power Laser Therapy of Shoulder Tendonitis. Scandinavian Journal of Rheumatology, 18(6), 427-431.

▪ Emanet, S. K., Altan, L. I., & Yurtkuran, M. (2010, juni). Investigation of the effect of GaAs laser therapy on lateral epicondylitis..Photomedicine and Laser Surgery, 28(3), 397-403.
▪ Bjordal, J. M., Lopes-Martins, R. A. B., Joensen, J., Couppe, C., Ljunggren, A. E., Stergioulas, A., & Johnson, M. I. (2008, 29 mei). A systematic review with procedural assessments and meta-analysis of Low Level Laser Therapy in lateral elbow tendinopathy (tennis elbow). BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders, 9(75), 1-15.
▪ Lam, L. K., & Cheing, G. L. (2007, april). Effects of 904-nm low-level laser therapy in the management of lateral epicondylitis: a randomized controlled trial. Photomedicine and Laser Surgery, 25(2), 65-71.
▪ Simunovic, Z., Trobonjaca, T., & Trobonjaca, Z. (1998, juni). Treatment of medial and lateral epicondylitis–tennis and golfer’s elbow–with low level laser therapy: a multicenter double blind, placebo-controlled clinical study on 324 patients.. Journal of Clinical Laser Medicine & Surgery, 16(3), 145-151.

▪ Konstantinovic, L. M., Kanjuh, Z. M., Milovanovic, A. N., Cutovic, M. R., Djurovic, A. G., Savic, V. G., & Milovanovic, N. D. (2010, 12 augustus). Acute low back pain with radiculopathy: a
double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study.. Photomedicine and Laser Surgery, 28(4), 553-560.
▪ Gur, A., Karakoc, M., Cevik, R., Nas, K., & Sarac, A. J. (2003). Efficacy of low power laser therapy and exercise on pain and functions in chronic low back pain.. Lasers in Surgery and Medicine, 32(3), 233-238.
▪ Soriano, F., & Ríos, R. (1998, januari). Gallium Arsenide Laser Treatment of Chronic Low Back Pain: A Prospective, Randomized and Double Blind Study. Laser Therapy, 10(4), 175-180.

▪ Nakamura, T., Ebihara, S., Ohkuni, I., Izukura, H., Harada, T., Ushigome, N., … Kubota, A. (2014, 27 december). Low Level Laser Therapy for chronic knee joint pain patients. Laser Therapy, 23(4), 273-277.
▪ Al Rashoud, A. S., Abboud, R. J., Wang, W., & Wigderowitz, C. (2014, september). Efficacy of low-level laser therapy applied at acupuncture points in knee osteoarthritis: a randomised double-blind comparative trial.. Physiotherapy, 100(3), 242-248.
▪ Baroni, B. M., Leal Junior, E. C., De Marchi, T., Lopes, A. L., Salvador, M., & Vaz, M. A. (2010, november). Low level laser therapy before eccentric exercise reduces muscle damage markers in humans. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 110(4), 789-796.
▪ Hegedus, B., Viharos, L., Gervain, M., & Gálfi, M. (2009, augustus). The effect of low-level laser in knee osteoarthritis: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Photomedicine and Laser Surgery, 27(4), 577-584.
▪ Bjordal, J. M., Johnson, M. I., Lopes-Martins, R. A. B., Bogen, B., Chow, R., & Ljunggren, A. E. (2007, 22 juni). Short-term efficacy of physical interventions in osteoarthritic knee pain. A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised placebo-controlled trials. BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders, 8(51), 1-14.

▪ Stergioulas, A., Stergioula, M., Aarskog, R., Lopes-Martins, R. A.B., & Bjordal, J. M. (2008, mei). Effects of low-level laser therapy and eccentric exercises in the treatment of recreational athletes with chronic achilles tendinopathy. The American Journal of Sports Medicine, 36(5), 881-887.
▪ Bjordal, J. M., Johnson, M. I., Lopes-Martins, R. A. B., Bogen, B., Chow, R., & Ljunggren, A. E. (2006, januari). A randomised, placebo controlled trial of low level laser therapy for activated Achilles tendinitis with microdialysis measurement of peritendinous prostaglandin E2 concentrations. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 40(1), 76-80.
▪ Stergioulas, A. (2004, april). Low-level laser treatment can reduce edema in second degree ankle sprains. Journal of Clinical Laser Medicine & Surgery, 22(2), 125-128.

▪ Douris, P., Southard, V., Ferrigi, R., Grauer, J., Katz, D., Nascimento, C., & Podbielski, P. (2006, juni). Effect of phototherapy on delayed onset muscle soreness.. Photomedicine and Laser Surgery, 24(3), 377-382.
▪ Bjordal, J. M., Couppé, C., & Ljunggren, A. E. (2001, mei). Low Level Laser Therapy for Tendinopathy. Evidence of A Dose–Response Pattern. Physical Therapy Reviews, 6(2), 91-99.
▪ Simunovic, Z. (1996, augustus). Low Level Laser Therapy with Trigger Points Technique: A Clinical Study on 243 Patients. Journal of Clinical Laser Medicine & Surgery, 14(4), 163-167.

▪ Bjordal, J. M., Johnson, M. I., Iversen, V., Aimbire, F., & Lopes-Martins, R. A. B. (2006, 17 mei). Low-Level Laser Therapy in Acute Pain: A Systematic Review of Possible Mechanisms of Action and Clinical Effects in Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trials.Photomedicine and Laser Surgery, 24(2), 158-168.

▪ Ruaro, J. A., Fréz, A. R., Ruaro, M. B., & Nicolau, R. A. (2014, 07 mei). Low-level laser therapy to treat fibromyalgia. Lasers in Medical Science, 29(6), 1815-1819.
▪ Gur, A., Karakoc, M., Nas, K., Cevik, R., Sarac, J., & Ataoglu, S. (2002, september). Effects Of Low Power Laser And Low Dose Amitriptyline Therapy On Clinical Symptoms And Quality Of Life In Fibromyalgia: A Single-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial. Rheumatology International, 22(5), 188-193.
▪ Gur, A., Karakoc, M., Nas, K., Cevik, R., Sarac, J., & Demir, E. (2002, januari). Efficacy Of Low Power Laser Therapy In Fibromyalgia: A Single-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial. Lasers in Medical Science, 17(1), 57-61

Wetenschappelijke evidenties/ case studies van Proff. Dr. R. Saggini
▪ http://www.rsaggini.it/online/pubblicazioni/
▪ http://www.rsaggini.it/online/pubblicazioni/libri/